By Laurence Irving (auth.)
After commute via Alaska throughout the moment international battle, in 1947 I went to Barrow with a really full of life crew of biologists. From their efficient learn constructed the Arctic study Laboratory. whereas we tested the particularly surpris ingly modest metabolic premiums of arctic warmblooded animals in chilly, in keeping with SCHO LANDER proposed after which performed measurements of metabolism of a few tropi cal animals in Panama. the variations might be formulated to teach the foundation of version to arctic chilly and to tropical heat. mind's eye and good judgment have been required to formulate the comparability in order that it can turn into part of technological know-how, however the crucial measurements have been derived from animals and vegetation of their personal arctic and tropical environments. features that adapt the types of existence to weather conditions of varied environments look transparent within the huge dimensions of super differing climates. on the time of my arrival in Alaska a few of the arctic Eskimos have been nonetheless principally depending on ordinary assets in their instant and native atmosphere, within which nice seasonal adjustments in temperature and sun radiation seemed as dominant elements. The residing surroundings on which they subsisted used to be additionally mar kedly suffering from the adjustments of the seasons, particularly by means of the swap in kingdom of water to ice that terminated summer season and by means of the melting that introduced the overdue transition from iciness to summer.
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Additional resources for Arctic Life of Birds and Mammals: Including Man
White-fur-coated pups in great numbers are slaughtered for fur and adults are taken for shorthaired skins and at times for blubber and flesh. Pups grow rapidly to the strong swimming ability that enables them to join the adults in pelagic bands that follow the northward-retreating ice in summer into high-arctic waters. As winter approaches they move southward at the margin of ice until spring finds them again at their respective breeding grounds. West Atlantic ice margins annually move over 25 0 of latitude, which sets the longest latitudinal migrations of these seals.
Species residing in arctic refugia remained arctic, but Recent extinctions show that in the course of time their associations comprised different arrays of mammals. Certainly in this respect, they lived in an environment different from the present Arctic. Species that resided south of the ice sheets inhabited southern lands of widely differing nature that was alike over the northern hemisphere only in having annual seasonal cycles of temperate latitudes. In returning to post-glacial arctic lands they had to encounter new and changing environments.
The eared seals (Otariidae - sea lions and fur seals) only approach arctic waters in Bering Sea, where they breed on shores in summer, when ice is far northward. Ice-breeding Harbor Seals and White-coated Pups Only in arctic harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and, to a degree, in gray seals (Halichoerus) does the ice-breeding habit appear to be adopted by the northern members of a species. Harbor seals have, in addition, extensions of shore-breeding popula- 29 tions far southward. I have made a guess that half of the species in the Pacific breeds on ice.
Arctic Life of Birds and Mammals: Including Man by Laurence Irving (auth.)