Get A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences PDF

By Michael Allaby

ISBN-10: 0199653062

ISBN-13: 9780199653065

This best dictionary - now in its fourth variation - deals wide-ranging and authoritative insurance of the earth sciences and comparable themes in over 7,500 transparent and available entries. insurance contains geology, planetary technology, oceanography, palaeontology, mineralogy, and volcanology, in addition to climatology, geochemistry, and petrology.

This new version has been totally up to date with one hundred fifty new entries extra, with multiplied insurance of geology and planetary geology phrases. Over a hundred thirty line drawings accompany the definitions.

The Dictionary additionally offers prompt net hyperlinks that are indexed and frequently up-to-date on a committed spouse web site. Appendices contain a revised geological time scale, an up-to-date bibliography, stratigraphic devices, lunar and Martian time scales, wind-strength scales, and SI devices. This dictionary is key for college kids of geography, geology, and earth sciences, and for these in in similar disciplines.

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Aptychus A calcitic plate associated with *Mesozoic *ammonites. Normally these plates occur in pairs. Aptychi are shaped like bivalves (*Bivalvia) and have an ornamented outer surface. Since they have been found inside the aperture of ammonoid shells they were originally interpreted as *opercula, protecting the ammonoid body when it was withdrawn into the shell. It has now been shown that aptychi are probably the lower jaws of ammonoids and that the horny upper jaw is rarely preserved. aquifer A body of permeable rock, for example, unconsolidated gravel or sand *stratum, that is capable of storing significant quantities of water, is underlain by impermeable material, and through which *groundwater moves.

Amphibolites are formed by medium-grade *metamorphism of *basic *igneous rocks such as *basalts, both *extrusive and *intrusive types. amphibolite facies A set of metamorphic *mineral assemblages produced by the *metamorphism of a wide range of starting rock types under the same metamorphic conditions and typically characterized by the development of the mineral assemblage andesine 22 (*plagioclase)–*hornblende in rocks of *basic *igneous composition. g. *shales or *limestones, would each develop their own specific mineral assemblage, even though they are all being metamorphosed under the same conditions.

Apophysis (pl. apophyses) 1. An irregular or sheet-like *vein or *dyke which originates from a larger *igneous rock body. 2. See vertebra. Appalachian orogenic belt A 3200 km long, *Palaeozoic, *orogenic belt extending from Newfoundland to Alabama and interpreted as the consequence of the closure of the *Iapetus Ocean. Extensions of the belt along *strike include the Caledonian orogenic belt (see caledonian orogeny) in northwestern Europe, now separated by the Atlantic Ocean. The deformation in the Appalachian belt ranges from late *Precambrian to *Permian, divided into four major *orogenies (*Avalonian, *Taconic, *Acadian, and *Alleghanian), with the transport of *thrust-*nappes predominantly north-westwards.

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A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences by Michael Allaby

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